Table Of Contents

  • Spectroscopy - Explained In Detail
  • Applications of Spectroscopic Techniques
  • A Few Examples of Spectroscopy
  • 5 Different Types of Spectroscopy
  • Conclusion

Spectroscopy is known as the study of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter.

It has an extended history in the area of physical sciences, starting with the optics experiments of Isaac Newton in 1966.

Since that time, spectroscopy has come to be the principal tool utilized by scientists to advance in the fields of physics, astronomy, and chemistry because its techniques enable them to evaluate matter on molecular, atomic, and macro scales & over astronomical distances as well.
Spectroscopy is a wide field that consists of various sub-disciplines and a broad array of methods, each of them utilizing favorably specialized equipment.

In this blog post, we will explore five types of spectroscopy, applications, and much more.

Spectroscopy - Explained In Detail

Spectroscopy is defined as the science of studying materials by gauging their response to distinct frequencies of radiation.

It must be taken into consideration that while some of the forms of spectroscopy utilize different forms of radiative energy, such as matter waves or acoustic, spectroscopy is nearly always understood to utilize electromagnetic radiation to probe the matter.

Spectroscopy is an essential tool of scientific study, having applications varying from materials characterization to medicine and astronomy.

Spectroscopy methods are generally categorized in accordance with the wavelength region utilized, the essence of the interaction pertained to, or the type of substance utilized.

Applications of Spectroscopic Techniques

a) When it comes to spectroscopy, it's majorly utilized for studying the structure of times & molecules.

Spectroscopy will make use of a large wavelength to discover the structure & electron configurations of molecules and atoms.

b) In clean technology, this specific technique is utilized to specify atmospheric levels of small particles from aerosols, whose minuscule size helps them to be undetectable by other techniques, and to recognize microplastics that have been rinsed into water supplies from some hygiene or clothing products.

c) Spectroscopy can be utilized to discover the unidentified chemical composition of elements.

Spectroscopy's emission range will help in focusing on some bit parts per million of a trace substance in a component.

d) The study related to the spectral emission lines truly helps astronomers to study far-off galaxies.

This assists in analyzing the universe in each and every direction.

Astronomers will also utilize the Doppler shift of spectral lines for detailed observations.

e) Speaking of spectroscopic analysis, it has been important in the expansion of pharmaceuticals for evaluating drug identity & purity, patent of antibiotics, interactions between active ingredients and excipients, drug crystalline structures, and much more.

f) It is also utilized in hospitals for respiratory gas analysis.

g) It helps in determining the hazardous components in blood samples.

h) The metabolic structure of muscles can be determined.

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A Few Examples of Spectroscopy

 Exploration of space.

Specifying the sample's atomic structure.

Protein characterization.

Analysis of respiratory gas in hospitals.

Discerning the metabolic structure of a muscle.

Monitoring of diffused oxygen content in aquatic and freshwater ecosystems.

Modifying the structure of drugs in order to enhance their effectiveness.

Reviewing spectral emission lines of far-off galaxies.

5 Different Types of Spectroscopy

Here are five different types of spectroscopy:

1. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR):

Photons present in the infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum possess characteristic energies that correspond to molecular vibrations.

This implies that IR spectroscopy presently remains the preliminary tool in order to study the rotational & vibrational modes of molecules.

Typically, IR spectrometers help in measuring the relative absorption of distinct frequencies in the IR region by a specimen.

Now, this absorption spectrum can then be utilized to determine the types of molecular bonds that exist in the specimen, which indicates the type of molecular structures present in a specimen.

2. X-Ray Spectroscopy:

The utilization of X-ray spectroscopy commenced with the development of X-ray crystallography in the year 1912.

William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg, this father & son team, displayed the diffraction patterns developed by X-rays passing by crystalline substances, which can be used to conclude the spirit of the crystal structure.

The two other X-ray spectroscopy methods are generally utilized today as, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXS).

Both of these techniques allow elemental analysis by gauging characteristic X-rays within a thin region of the spectrum.

3. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV/Vis) Spectroscopy:

The ultraviolet and observable regions of the electromagnetic spectrum pertain to the electron energy level evolutions in molecules and atoms.

Therefore, UV/Vis spectroscopy can be utilized to investigate the electronic structure of molecules in a specimen, henceforth facilitating the identification of the presence of compounds.

It is normally utilized for recognizing specific amino acids, side chains, peptide bonds, and specific prosthetic groups & coenzymes.

4. Raman Spectroscopy:

Raman spectroscopy is majorly related to the concern with the inelastic scattering of photons, which is known as Raman Scattering, where the evident wavelength of a photon is changed when it actually interacts with the specimen.

This method makes use of a source of monochromatic light which is utilized to illuminate the sample.

So, when the laser light interacts with molecular vibrations or any other excitations in the molecular system, the energy of the photon is changed either up or down.

Precise measurements of these energy changes facilitate a thorough examination of the types of chemical bonds present in the specimen.

5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy:

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a method that is utilized to gauge the magnetic fields that are present around atomic nuclei.

NMR spectroscopy makes use of radio waves to exhilarate atomic nuclei in a specimen. When nuclei begin to resonate, this can be detected through sensitive radio receivers.

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 In the coming future, the utilization of spectroscopy to survey air quality can be incorporated with advanced artificial intelligence and unmanned drones in order to automate processes for environmental monitoring globally, making sure to be up to date.

Plus, precise readings of levels of volatile organic compounds in the environment are relevant to citizens & policymakers and are able to drive better policy and behavior judgments.