Table Of Contents

  • Introduction
  • What is Spectroscope? 
  • Spectroscopy - Explained in Detail
  • What is the Principle of Spectroscopy
  • Applications of Spectroscopic Techniques
  • A Few Examples of Spectroscopic
  • Types of Spectroscopy
  • Conclusion
  • Key Takeaways
  • FAQs


Introduction

Spectroscopy is known as the study of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter.

It actually has an extended history in the area of physical sciences, starting with the optics experiments of Isaac Newton in 1966. 

Since that time, spectroscopy has come to be the principal tool utilized by scientists to advance in the fields of physics, astronomy, and chemistry because its techniques enable them to evaluate matter on molecular, atomic, and macro scales & over astronomical distances as well.

Spectroscopy is a wide field that consists of various sub-disciplines and a broad array of methods, each of them utilizing favorably specialized Equipment

In this blog post, we will explore five types of spectroscopy, applications, and much more.


What is Spectroscope?

Spectroscope

A spectroscope, also known as a spectrometer, is defined as a scientific instrument utilized to measure as well as analyze the spectrum of light.

Here, the spectrum of light refers to the diffusion of electromagnetic radiation across various frequencies or wavelengths.

So, when white light enacts or passes via a spectroscope, it is dispersed into its element colors or wavelengths, developing a spectrum.

Today, spectroscopes are widely utilized in different fields, such as astronomy, chemistry, physics, and environmental science, in order to achieve valuable information about the properties of the source of light.


Spectroscopy - Explained in Detail

Spectroscopy is defined as the science of studying materials by gauging their response to distinct frequencies of radiation.

It must be taken into consideration that while some of the forms of spectroscopy utilize different forms of radiative energy, such as matter waves or acoustic, spectroscopy is nearly always understood to utilize electromagnetic radiation in order to probe the matter.

Spectroscopy is an essential tool of scientific study, having applications varying from materials characterization to medicine and astronomy.

Spectroscopy methods are generally categorized in accordance with the wavelength region utilized, the essence of the interaction pertained to, or the type of substance utilized.


What is the Principle of Spectroscopy?

Spectroscopy is based on the concept that substances or elements exhibit an absorption spectrum, which depicts the range of energy absorbed by the component across different frequencies or wavelengths.

The atomic as well as molecular composition of all the components tends to display their extraordinary absorption spectrum.

The difference in energy between the two molecules demonstrates the influence of the frequency of light radiation absorbed by the element.

This particular absorption method generates an absorption line, and when these lines are combined together, they result in the development of an absorption spectrum.

When a photon possessing adequate power comes in contact with any object, its electrons tend to absorb this energy and transition to a higher energy state.

The quantity of photons (radiation) absorbed plays a critical part in illustrating the absorption spectrum, which can thereafter be specified via absorbance measurements.

The quantity of molecules present in a sample determines its absorbing tendency, which is further specified by the quantity of electrons present in the specimen.

For a wide variety of analytical issues, there are multiple spectroscopic approaches that can be easily accessible. 

However, these methodologies can make a shift by relying on the kind of radiation-matter interaction to be able to keep track of absorption, emission, or diffraction, and might be utilized in the analytical area of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Applications of Spectroscopic Techniques

a) When it comes to spectroscopy, it's majorly utilized for studying the structure of times & molecules.

Spectroscopy will make use of a large wavelength in order to discover the structure & electron configurations of molecules and atoms.



b) In clean technology, this specific technique is utilized to specify atmospheric levels of small particles from aerosols, whose minuscule size helps them to be undetectable by other techniques, and to recognize microplastics that have been rinsed into water supplies from some hygiene or clothing products.


c) Spectroscopy can be utilized to discover the unidentified Chemical composition of elements.

Spectroscopy's emission range will help in focusing on some bit parts per million of a trace substance in a component.


d) The study related to the spectral emission lines truly helps astronomers to study far-off galaxies.

This assists in analyzing the universe in each and every direction.


Astronomers will also utilize the Doppler shift of spectral lines for detailed observations.


e) Speaking of spectroscopic analysis, it has been important in the expansion of pharmaceuticals for evaluating drug identity & purity, patent of antibiotics, interactions between active ingredients and excipients, drug crystalline structures, and much more.


f) It is also utilized in hospitals for respiratory gas analysis.


g) It helps in determining the hazardous components in blood samples.


h) The metabolic structure of muscles can be determined.


Read More: 11 Tips for Maintaining Laboratory Equipment


A Few Examples of Spectroscopy

 ➔ Exploration of space.

➔ Specifying the sample's atomic structure.

➔ Protein characterization.

➔ Analysis of respiratory gas in hospitals.

➔ Discerning the metabolic structure of a muscle.

➔ Monitoring of diffused oxygen content in aquatic and freshwater ecosystems.

➔ Modifying the structure of drugs in order to enhance their effectiveness.

➔ Reviewing spectral emission lines of far-off galaxies.


8 Different Types of Spectroscopy

Here are five different types of spectroscopy:


1. Infrared Spectroscopy (IR):

Photons present in the infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum possess characteristic energies that correspond to molecular vibrations.

This implies that IR spectroscopy presently remains the preliminary tool in order to study the rotational & vibrational modes of molecules.

Typically, IR Spectrometers help in measuring the relative absorption of distinct frequencies in the IR region by a specimen.

Now, this absorption spectrum can then be utilized to determine the types of molecular bonds that exist in the specimen, which indicates the type of molecular structures present in a specimen.


2. X-Ray Spectroscopy:

The utilization of X-ray spectroscopy commenced with the development of X-ray crystallography in the year 1912.

William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg, this father & son team, displayed the diffraction patterns developed by X-rays passing by crystalline substances, which can be used to conclude the spirit of the crystal structure.

The two other X-ray spectroscopy methods are generally utilized today as, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXS). 

The two other X-ray spectroscopy methods are generally utilized today as, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXS).

Both of these techniques allow elemental analysis by gauging characteristic X-rays within a thin region of the spectrum.


3. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV/Vis) Spectroscopy:

The ultraviolet and observable regions of the electromagnetic spectrum pertain to the electron energy level evolutions in molecules and atoms.

Therefore, UV/Vis spectroscopy can be utilized to investigate the electronic structure of molecules in a specimen, henceforth facilitating the identification of the presence of compounds.

It is normally utilized for recognizing specific amino acids, side chains, peptide bonds, and specific prosthetic groups & coenzymes.


4. Raman Spectroscopy:

Raman spectroscopy is majorly related to the concern with the inelastic scattering of photons, which is known as Raman Scattering, where the evident wavelength of a photon is changed when it actually interacts with the specimen.

This method makes use of a source of monochromatic light which is utilized to illuminate the sample.

So, when the laser light interacts with molecular vibrations or any other excitations in the molecular system, the energy of the photon is changed either up or down.

Precise measurements of these energy changes facilitate a thorough examination of the types of Chemical bonds present in the specimen.


5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy:

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a method that is utilized to gauge the magnetic fields that are present around atomic nuclei.

NMR spectroscopy makes use of radio waves to exhilarate atomic nuclei in a specimen. When nuclei begin to resonate, this can be detected through sensitive radio receivers.


6. Mass Spectroscopy (MS):

Mass spectrometry is the process that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.

It is widely utilized for specifying the molecular weight, composition, and structure of compounds. In addition, it is also used for the identification of unknown components.


7. Fluorescence Spectroscopy:

Fluorescence spectroscopy is known as the study of the emission of light (fluorescence) from molecules, which have been excited by photon absorption.

It is commonly utilized in environmental as well as environmental research.


8. FTIR Spectroscopy:

FTIR spectroscopy, also known as Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, is a strong analytical method that is utilized to study the interaction between infrared radiation and matter.

It is typically utilized in different scientific and industrial applications for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of substances on the basis of their absorption, emission, or reflection of infrared light.


Read Also: Bio-decontamination for Cleanrooms using Hydrogen Peroxide



Conclusion

In the coming future, the utilization of spectroscopy to survey air quality can be incorporated with advanced artificial intelligence and unmanned drones in order to automate processes for environmental monitoring globally, making sure to be up to date.

Plus, precise readings of levels of volatile organic compounds in the environment are relevant to citizens & policymakers and are able to drive better policy and behavior judgments.


Key Takeaways

  • Spectroscopy technology is utilized mainly to analyze the interaction of matter with light in order to acquire data about its composition and characteristics.


  • It has various applications in diverse fields such as astronomy, chemistry, and environmental science.


  • Types of spectroscopy comprise UV-visible, Infrared, NMR, Mass Spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray spectroscopy, among others.


  • Applications of spectroscopy techniques range from determining Chemical compounds to researching celestial objects and monitoring environmental pollutants.


  • Spectroscopy supports quality control, forensic analysis, and medical diagnostics.


  • It helps in determining the elemental and molecular composition of elements.


  • Spectroscopic data is usually characterized as Spectra, which delivers a unique fingerprint of the analyzed substance.


FAQS

1. What is the range of spectroscopy?

A: Spectroscopy includes a wide range of methods that extend across the electromagnetic spectrum, making its range extremely wide.

It might include visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light, as well as radio & microwave frequencies, X-rays, and gamma rays.

This wide spectrum entitles spectroscopy to be utilized in different scientific disciplines, from astronomy to chemistry and beyond, for objectives such as identifying Chemical compositions, evaluating molecular structures, researching astronomical objects, and examining the basic properties of matter.


2. Which spectroscopy is best?

A: The choice of the best spectroscopy type completely depends on the specific scientific or analytical objectives of a particular research or study.

Each type of spectroscopy has its own advantages and is best suited for respective applications.


3. What are the advantages of spectroscopy?

A: Spectroscopy provides a wide range of benefits, mainly including its ability to deliver detailed data about the composition, structure, and properties of matter.

It also enables the identification of elements by their unusual spectral fingerprints, aids in quantifying the concentration of different elements within a specimen, and can disclose valuable insights into chemical reactions and molecular interactions. 


4. How is spectrophotometry used in real life?

A: Spectrophotometry is widely utilized in numerous applications in real life, which include determining the concentration of substances in chemistry and biology laboratories, assessing the quality of food and beverages, and monitoring environmental pollutants in water and air. And it is utilized even in medical diagnostics for measuring biomarkers as well as DNA quantification.


5. Can Infrared Light Analyze all Materials?

A: Infrared light has the ability to assess a wide range of materials, but when it comes to its effectiveness, it totally depends on the specific properties of the material and the application.

Infrared spectroscopy is generally utilized for organic compounds, recognizing the functional groups and molecular structures. 


References:

1. AGSSCI

2. MSU chemistry

3. HORIBA

4. ResearchGate